3. Aluminum based sacrificial anode
The density of aluminum is small, the theoretical electric quantity is large, the current efficiency is high (generally 85%), and it has large electronegativity. Therefore, in theory, aluminum is a good sacrificial anode material. However, due to the formation of a dense oxide film on the surface of pure aluminum and the positive potential of the film, pure aluminum can not play a role in cathodic protection. If alloy elements are added to aluminum, the formation of dense oxide film on the surface of aluminum can be prevented, and the aluminum based sacrificial anode with higher current efficiency and better comprehensive performance can be made. It can automatically adjust the current in seawater and medium containing chloride ions, and can be widely used in cathodic protection of steel facilities (such as offshore drilling platform, submarine pipeline, etc.) in marine environment, and has the trend of replacing zinc alloy sacrificial anode. The development of aluminum alloy anode has experienced the following process: pure aluminum → binary aluminum alloy → ternary aluminum alloy → quaternary aluminum alloy → five or more than six element aluminum alloy. In recent years, the main research direction is to add high active alloy elements and modifiers into aluminum to refine and homogenize the internal structure of the alloy, so as to improve the stability of aluminum based anode.
4. Composite Sacrificial Anode
In the sacrificial anode protection system, when there is no protective coating on the surface of the equipment, in order to make the protected equipment polarization as soon as possible, it is usually used to increase the number of sacrificial anode to provide the required polarization current. When the polarization is stable, the polarization current required for protection becomes smaller, and the current generated by sacrificial anode is surplus, which not only causes waste of anode materials, but also easily causes over protection of equipment. This problem can be solved by using composite sacrificial anode.
In recent years, two kinds of Composite Sacrificial anode materials have been developed
It is composed of magnesium and zinc or aluminum, zinc or aluminum in the core and magnesium in the outside;
Magnesium anode is mixed with zinc anode or aluminum anode.
Both anode and anode make use of the high driving potential of magnesium to pre polarize the equipment, so as to reduce the current density required to reach the protection potential. Compared with common sacrificial anode, composite sacrificial anode can not only reduce the number of anode, save cost, but also solve the problem of over protection. In today's increasingly tense resources and energy, this advantage will undoubtedly make it have a very broad application prospects.
The sacrificial anode protection method has the characteristics of no need to provide auxiliary power supply, small anode output current, small installation work, and no maintenance during operation. However, when sacrificial anode protection is implemented, its anode output current is limited and controllable, so it can only protect a small range near the anode. When a large working current or a large range is needed, such as the reinforced concrete structure exposed to the air, the impressed current cathodic protection method is needed.
The impressed current cathodic protection method is to provide the required protection current through the external power supply. The protected metal is used as the cathode and the specific material is selected as the anode to protect the metal. The impressed current cathodic protection system is mainly composed of DC power supply, auxiliary anode and reference electrode. The auxiliary anode is the core component. Its electrochemical performance directly affects the working effect and service life of the whole system. It can be selected according to the geometry, external current and application environment.
3. Aluminum based sacrificial anode
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